30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012 Just another Blog Politeknik Telkom Sites site Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:55:20 +0000 en hourly 1 http://wordpress.org/?v=3.1 Seven Easy Steps To Setting Up An Interal DNS Server On Ubuntu http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/seven-easy-steps-to-setting-up-an-interal-dns-server-on-ubuntu/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/seven-easy-steps-to-setting-up-an-interal-dns-server-on-ubuntu/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:55:20 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=247 Bind9 is used all across the internet for DNS. A survey shows that over 70% of DNS servers on the internet use Bind. In this tutorial we will setup a Bind9 DNS server for your home network with caching.

By running a caching DNS server it will cache DNS locally so sites you visit often will not have to make a DNS query until the DNS record has expired. This will help improve your internet speed as well as reduce bandwidth. I have noticed a huge improvement with my satellite internet connection just by running a local DNS caching server.

Below you can see the first time I make a DNS request for distrowatch.com the query time is 1698 milliseconds. The second time I make the request after it has been cached, it only takes 4 milliseconds.









Example of Bind9 caching server before DNS entry is cached - Query time: 1698 msec






Example of Bind9 DNS Cache after entry has been cached - query time: 4 Msec



Now milliseconds doesn’t seem like a lot of time. However most website have content that is pulled from multiple locations.  A webpage could have a youtube video embed, some ads, a news feed, images and much more being pulled from other domains. When that page loads, a DNS requests is made for all objects. The more stuff on the site from multiple locations the more DNS request need to be made.

Another great benefit to running a internal DNS server is you can just type the name of a device like server, firewall, printer, basement-pc, or whatever you want to call your network devices. There is no need to remember the IP addresses of the devices when you can just type the defined name.

Before we begin I am assuming you have an Ubuntu server running and configured with a static IP address. If you need help with that take a look at some of the following articles.

How To Install Ubuntu Server

How To Set A Static IP Address On A Ubuntu Server


Let’s dive in and start setting up an internal DNS server with caching!





Installing Bind9 on Ubuntu

Installing Bind9 (DNS Server) is a breeze on Ubuntu. Three packages will need to be installed: bind9, dnsutils, and bind9-doc.

  • bind9: The DNS service.
  • dnsutils: A set of tools such as dig which can be helpful for testing and trouble shooting.
  • bind9-doc: Local info pages with information about bind and its configuration options. This is optional but recommended.

You will need to be at the console of your Ubuntu server or have SSH setup and connected to your soon to be bind9 DNS server. Lets install the packages with the following command:

sudo apt-get install bind9 dnsutils bind9-doc



Install Bind9 On Ubuntu or Linux Mint with the command sudo apt-get install bind9 bind9-doc dnsutils



Enter your password



Enter You password to confirm the install of Bind9



Enter Y to confirm installing




Enter Y to confirm Bind9 DNS server and DNS utilities






Basic Bind Configuration

The next step is to configure the forwards addresses for bind. This tell bind where to look if it doesn’t know the IP address of a domain. In this example we will use Google’s Public DNS servers for the forward DNS servers. Google’s DNS servers are fast, free, and have easy to remember IP addresses. If you want you can use your local  internet provider’s DNS servers. Another option is to use OpenDNS which gives you the ability to filter content. This can be nice if you have young children on the internet.


Let’s edit /etc/bind/named.conf.options and define the forward addresses. To keep things simple we will use the nano text editor in this tutorial. If you want to use Vim or Emacs instead, feel free to do so.


sudo nano /etc/bind/named.conf.options



enter the following command: sudo nano /etc/bind/named.conf.options



Delete the // in front of:


// forwarders {
// };
Since we are using Google’s Public DNS servers, we will want to replace with Google’s DNS server IPs and . Your config file should look similar to the image below.
Example of Bind9 forward addresses - Using Google's Public DNS servers

Exit it out of nano by hitting CTRL + X.

Enter Y to confirm saving changes.



Enter Y to confirm changes - Using nano text editor



Hit Enter to overwrite the file.



Confirm the file name has not changed and hit enter to save changes



The next step is to edit /etc/bind/named.conf.local. This file holds information on what zones to load when Bind9 is started. We will setup two zones files to load, the Forward and Reverse zones.

In this example we will setup an internal domain with tne name linux.rocks. If you want to use something else just make sure you replace linux.rocks in the following steps with your internal domain name. The internal domain can be whatever you want.

The reason I am using linux.rocks instead of something like linux.com, linux.net, linux.org..etc is a real domain on the internet could have this address.  If this was the case I would not be able to access the real domain on the  internet. Instead I would be directed to a device on my internal network.

At this time .rocks is not a top level domain on the internet, but it does not mean it won’t be tommorow. If you want to be sure there is no way your domain could be used externally, use a reserved top level domain like .test, .example, .invalid or .localhost. So in this example we could use linux.test and not have to worry about that domain every being a real domain on the internet. To learn more about reserved domains check out http://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc2606


We will need to figure out our IP address range of our internal network so we can build the correct reverse zone lookup file.

When looking at our IP address the part we care about is the first three sets of octets (numbers). Then we just reverse them.  So If my IP address is my reverse lookup zone would be 1.168.192.in-addr.arpa. If my IP address is my reverse zone would be 16.20.172.in-addr.arpa .

Most home networks will have a 192.168.1.X or 192.168.0.X type of IP address. In my case I have a 192.168.96.X IP address network.


If you need help on how to find what your IP address, check out some of the following tutorials.

How To Find IP Address in Linux

How To Find IP Address in Windows



Let’s open up /etc/bind/named.conf.local and define the locations of the forward and reverse zone files.


sudo nano /etc/bind/named.conf.local



Edit /etc/bind/named.conf.local



Add The following.

Note:  Replace linux.rocks with the internal domain name you picked and replace 96.168.192  with your IP address scheme. Adjust the zone file names to fit your setup and make note of the names (db.linux.rocks and db.192) because we will need to build these files in the next few steps.



zone “linux.rocks” {
type master;
file “/etc/bind/db.linux.rocks”;
zone “96.168.192.in-addr.arpa” {
type master;
notify no;
file “/etc/bind/db.192″;



Here is what my named.conf.local file looks like:



Example named.conf.local file - Added forward and reverse zone



Hit CTRL + X to exit out of nano

Enter Y to confirm saving changes



Enter Y to Save Changes in nano



Confirm the name has not changed and hit Enter to save changes.



Confirm the name of the file is the same and not something.tmp and hit enter to save the changes








Building Your DNS Forward Zone

Now that we have defined what zone files to load when Bind starts, we need to create these files. The first file we need to build is the forward zone file (db.linux.rocks). We can use a template to help speed things and prevent mistakes. Let’s copy  /etc/bind/db.local and name the file to the name we defined above in /etc/bind/named.conf.local . (Example: db.linux.rocks)


sudo cp /etc/bind/db.local /etc/bind/db.linux.rocks



Make a copy of db.local to use as a template for your bind9 DNS forward zone



Let’s now edit the new forward zone file and make changes to fit the network.


sudo nano /etc/bind/db.linux.rocks



Edit the forward zone file you just created by coping db.local



Bind9 forward zone template on Ubuntu system



We will need to change a few basic setting in this file and then add our forward lookups.  Below you will find a screenshot with a break down of what these settings do and how to set them to fit your network.


A.) localhost. – This is the fully qualified domain name of the server in charge of the domain we are creating.  Change this to your hostname followed by the domain name. Since my server hostname is ubuntu-server, I will set this to ubuntu-server.linux.rocks. Make sure it ends with the “.” . If you need help on how to find or change your hostname take a look at http://mixeduperic.com/ubuntu/how-to-find-and-change-your-hostname-on-an-ubuntu-system.html.

B.) root.localhost. – This is the email address of the person responsible for managing the DNS server. Here you do not use the @ sign but use a  ”.” This is really more for human consumption.     Note:  Make sure you have a “.” at the end.

C.) localhost. – This is defining the Name server for the domain (NS). You will want to change this to the fully qualified domain name again. So I would set this to ubuntu-server.linux.rocks. Note:  Make sure you have a “.” at the end.



Settings we need to change in bind9 forward zone template on Ubuntu


This is what my forward zone file looks like so far.  (/etc/bind/db.linux.rocks)



Here is the start of my forward zone lookup file



Now for the fun part. we can now start defining our devices on the network.


Let’s take a quick look at DNS record types.

The three most common types of DNS records are Address (A Record), Canonical Name (CNAME), and Mail Exchanger (MX). We will focus on A and CNAME records in this tutorial.


Address (A Record): Defines a mapping of a hostname to an IP address. This is the most common

Canonical Name (CNAME): Defines that the domain name is an alias of another name. It basically allows you to point a domain name to another.

Mail exchanger (MX): Defines mail server responsible for accepting email messages.


Below you will see a the basic network layout that we will be defining.  All the devices have a static IP address assigned to them. In a later tutorial we will look at setting up DHCP to update our DNS records but for now we will just setup a basic DNS server. If you need help on setting a static IP address on an ubuntu system check out http://mixeduperic.com/ubuntu/how-to-set-a-static-ip-address-on-a-ubuntu-server.html .



Example Network we will be setting up in Bind9 DNS



So in the example network we will want to be able to connect to all the devices using the name of the device instead of the IP address. We will also use CNAME records to map the name server01 to ubuntu-server and server02 to ubuntu-server2. This will allow us to type in server01 or ubuntu-server and connect to the same machine.



Example of adding A and CNAME records in Bind9 DNS



Now let’s break this down and look at what some of these settings mean. The image below highlights each area by letter to help clear somethings up.


A.) This is the name that we want to link to an ip address.

B.) IN Stands for internet. This is one class of data; other classes exist, but none of them is currently in widespread use.

C.) This is defining it as an A record type (Address).

D.) This is defining the IP address of the device we want to call firewall.

E.) This is defining it as a CNAME record type instead of an A, or MX.

F.) This is defining the fully qualified domain name the CNAME record (Alias) points to.

Note: When using CNAME records make sure you use the fully qualified domain name followed by a “.”.



Bind9 Forward Zone Record Breakdown



Now we just need to save our changes.

Hit CTRL + X to exit nano.

Enter “Y” to save the file.



Enter Y to save changes in the bind9 forward zone



Hit Enter to overwrite the file.



Hit Enter to overwrite changes to the bind9 forward zone file






Building Your Reverse Lookup

Reverse DNS is not a must have but it is very good practice and some services need it. Often times things can act a little goofy if it’s not setup. It does the opposite of the forward zone file and maps IP addresses to names.

You can use nslookup to look up a name by IP address.

Here is an example of me doing an nslookup on up address

Note: This was done after the reverse zone was setup and running.



Example of using nslookup to lookup the device name by IP address



When we setup named.conf.local we defined the name of the reverse zone file. If you are following along it was defined as /etc/bind/db.192. We will create this file by making a copy of another file.

sudo cp /etc/bind/db.127 /etc/bind/db.192



Copy db.127 to use as our template for the reverse zone lookup file



Now lets edit that file.

sudo nano /etc/bind/db.192



Edit your reverse DNS zone file



Default bind reverse zone before edited



Just like the forward zone file we will need to edit a few basic settings first before adding our addresses.


A.) This should be the fully quilifed name of the server (hostname.domain.name)

B.) This is the email address of the person responsible for the managing the domain. Remember to use a “.” instead of the @ sign.

C.) Change this to the fully quilified name of your DNS server. Example: (server-ubuntu.linux.rocks.)

D.) We can delete this line. Since we copied the local host file this was included in it and we don’t need it.

Reminder: Make sure you have a “.” at the end of the names.



Default Bind9 Reverse file with stuff we need to change highlighted.



This is what my reverse zone file looks like so far.



Example of my reverse zone file before adding addresses



Let’s start adding the reverse DNS records.



Bind Reverse Zone Example File



Let’s Break this down


A.) This is the last octet (Set up Numers on the IP address of the device. (Example:

Note: Leave the 0 off the front, so on numbers under ten like 01 would be 1 instead of 01 . Otherwise things may not work correctly.

B.) IN is defining it as an Internet address.

C.) PTR is a pointer record. This defines what name will be called when an IP address is looked up.

D.) This is the fully qualified domain name that will return when doing a nslookup.


Break Down of entries of Bind Reverse Zone File on Ubuntu System



Now lets save our reverse zone file by hitting CTRL + X

Enter “Y” to confirm saving the file.



Enter Y to confirm saving the reverse zone file



Hit Enter to overwrite the file.



Hit Enter to overwrite the reverse zone file





Starting Your DNS Server

We should have most of our configuration done and can now fire up the bind9 service.


sudo /etc/init.d/bind9 start



Enter sudo /etc/init.d/bind9 start to start your bind DNS server on Ubuntu Server



If Bind started you should see OK



Other Useful Commands:

Restart bind9 service: sudo /etc/init.d/bind9 restart

Stop bind9 service: sudo /etc/init.d/bind9 stop






Testing Your DNS Server

Let’s configure the server to use the Bind9 service that is running locally as its own DNS server.

sudo nano /etc/resolv.conf



Configure DNS server to use the bind service for DNS records



Add name server, domain, and search option to your resolve.conf file.

nameserver: This is the IP address of the DNS server to use. You can use the IP address or the loopback address

domain: This will be the domain we just created.

search: This will be the domain we just created.



Example of setting up /etc/resolv.conf to use new bind server




Now that we have DNS setup we can use ping to test that everything is working.

Both dig and ping are great tools for troubleshooting and testing. dig is great for checking the time it takes to returen a DNS request as well as see what DNS server filled that request.


dig distrowatch.com



use dig to test new bind dns server with caching



Example of results from dig before dns record is cached




You can see that the DNS server that responded was and it took 1579 msec to get a reply. Now 1579 is a really long time but since I have a satalite connection that is the norm. Most networks should be 500 msec or less.

Let’s dig distrowatch.com one more time and see what kind of performance increase we get now that the DNS request for distrowatch.com is cached.

dig distrowatch.com



dig results after dns record has been cached on bind server



You can see a big performance increase. It went from 1579 msec to 3 msec. We now know that the server can query google’s DNS server on entries is does not know.   Let’s now try and ping one of the internal DNS enties we added. Since I setup the name firewall to IP address, I wil try pinging that address and use the -c 4 option at the end of the command to ping it only 4 times. If you leave the -c 4 option off it will keep pinging until you hit CTRL + C to cancel it.

ping firewall -c 4



ping new dns record



Example of ping results of new dns record - firewall



You can see that I am getting replies. Looks like everything is up and working!

source: http://mixeduperic.com/ubuntu/seven-easy-steps-to-setting-up-an-interal-dns-server-on-ubuntu.html


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How to keep your Ubuntu Server updated with patches and security fixes, using the command line http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/how-to-keep-your-ubuntu-server-updated-with-patches-and-security-fixes-using-the-command-line/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/how-to-keep-your-ubuntu-server-updated-with-patches-and-security-fixes-using-the-command-line/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:53:40 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=245 In Ubuntu you can install all your updates through the command line. You will often have to do this if you are running Ubuntu server without a GUI. Lets take a look at some of the commands to help keep you secure and up to date with all the open-source goodness.

Ubuntu is often petty good at letting you know that updates are available when you login to your machine.



Updates Available - Notice When I SSH into my Server



sudo apt-get update

This will refresh the list of all available updates. I would recommend running this before you run the upgrade commands to make sure you are getting all the available updates.



sudo apt-get update



Enter Your Password



Enter Your password



Progress (Will vary on the repositories you have enabled)


Refresh of package list progress



sudo apt-get upgrade

This will install almost all updates except some of the big things like kernel updates and things that may require you to restart the system after the change. This will work a large amount of the time. If you however get something similar to “The following packages have been kept back: landscape-common linux-generic-pae linux-headers-generic-pae linux-image-generic-pae” you will need to run the dis-upgrade command and it will require a restart to have the changes applied.



sudo apt-get upgrade


Kernel and header updates held back



sudo apt-get dist-upgrade

This command will allow you to apply a kernel upgrade or some big changes that will require a restart to take effect. If this is a production survey I would recommend running this off peak hours.



sudo apt-get dist-upgrade


Enter Y to continue and install ubuntu updates



Simple enough! These three commands can help keep your Ubuntu or Debian based system up to-date and secure.


Hope you found this helpful!

source: http://mixeduperic.com/ubuntu/how-to-keep-your-ubuntu-server-updated-with-patches-and-security-fixes-using-the-command-line


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Simple Steps To Basic Wireless Hacking http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/simple-steps-to-basic-wireless-hacking/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/simple-steps-to-basic-wireless-hacking/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:52:40 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=243 The intent of this article is to show you some information on  basic wireless hacking along with just how important it is to secure your wireless Network. Please use this information wisely. I am not responsible for what you and your friends do with this information.

Today it is very easy to set up a wireless network. Basically plug in the router a few clicks on your computer and away you go. The average person can go to the local electronic store and pick up a wireless router for as cheap as 40 bucks. The Problem comes in when securing the network. A lot people don’t take the time to learn how to, or care to set up a secure network. How much damage can some one do if they connect to a wireless network?

Well in this article I will show you just how easy it is to connect to one of these unsecured networks and what kind trouble can be caused. I am going to use just some built in tools of Windows XP. There are other tools like the Linux distribution BackTrack that are created just for this task and much more.






How Simple is it to find a Unsecured Network?

In this example I am just using the windows wireless management tool in windows XP. This will work fine if you are not on the move. If you are scanning for networks in a car or on your bike I would strongly recommend NetStumbler.








As you can see here just by looking at what networks are available close to my home, there is at least one unsecured network. (See image below) I would be willing to bet you could go around your block and find at least five or more open networks depending on your location. I am going to use this Linksys network in my example.




Networks Available






How simple is it to connect to an Unsecured Network?

I just double clicked on the open Linksys network.



Double Click on the Open Network



It will warn you that you are connecting to a unsecured network.

Click Connect Anyways



Warning: Connect Anyways



Now I can start Browsing the Internet. If I wanted to start hacking away at some site, it would appear as if It was the owner of the open wireless network.





What can some one do if they connect to unsecured network?

In this example this wireless network is still set at the default settings including the Administrator password.

A simple search on http://www.routerpasswords.com you can find just about any wireless router Default password. Since this is a Linksys router the default password would be admin with a blank username.

Since most wireless routers are the default gateway, I will do a quick command in dos to find out what the default gateway is.

Click on start > Run

Type CMD and click ok

In the Dos window type ipconfig then hit enter



Find Default Gateway



I look for the information under my wireless network card. The default gateway is

Type this in your Browser to connect to the Linksys router.



Enter the routers IP address in your browser



You will be prompted for a user-name and password. Leave the user-name blank or type root Since this is a Linksys router I will use the password admin



Linksys Default Password "admin"



To find out the default password for just about any router check out http://www.routerpasswords.com/

If they did not change there router password you should be able to get in to the configuration pages of the router.



Basic Setup Page - Landing Page



I am now connected to the router. This gives me complete access to see who is on the network. I can also do things such as set up security, open ports, and so much more.

How do you see who is connected to the network?

- Click on Status

- Click on Local Network



Click on Status > Local Network



- Click on DHCP Client Table button



Click on DHCP Table



You should now see all computers that have been assigned an IP address by the router. Not all the computers on the network may not be connected at that time but a simple ping will let you know.

You could run a port scanner on each of these computer’s IP address to find open ports such as SSH, Telnet, Termainal service and so on.



Local Computers on the network



Since we are able to configure the router we could open up ports and let any one on the internet have access to this network. We could also have a little fun by setting up wireless security on the network and locking out the owner of his or hers own network.

Lets say you could not get in to configure the router there still is a lot of trouble that can be caused just by being connected on the network. You could set up a Network packet capturing program such as Ethereal and then use it to Scan for information such as user-name and passwords from websites they may login to. Another really easy tool to round up usernames stored in a cookie for facebook would be Firesheep.

You could also go out and cause some trouble on the web and it would trace back to there IP address (Link to the network owner).

At the very least you could just enjoy the free internet. Also if you out on the road with your laptop and get lost, you could always get connected real quick and take advantage of Google maps or other resource. Could come in handy in a pinch.

I hope this article got you thinking a little bit and if your wireless network and making sure it is  secure If your network is not secure I really hope you think about taking a little time to secure it.

source: http://mixeduperic.com/windows/simple-steps-to-basic-wireless-hacking.html


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Find Your MAC address in Linux (Gnome 2, Gnome 3, and Unity) http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/find-your-mac-address-in-linux-gnome-2-gnome-3-and-unity/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/find-your-mac-address-in-linux-gnome-2-gnome-3-and-unity/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:51:25 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=241 You can think of a MAC address as a serial number for your network card. It is a unique six two-digits hexadecimal numbers separated by colons. It is used for routing traffic on a network.


In this example I will show you how to find your MAC in Ubuntu with gnome 2 and Unity and Gnome 3 on Arch Linux. These steps should apply to just about any linux distribution. The only difference is how you launch the terminal.There are a few linux distros that require you to issue the commands as the root or super user.







Opening A Terminal Window

Gnome 2:

To open a Terminal window in Gnome 2 click on Applications > Accessories > Terminal



Click on Applications > Accessories > Terminal




To open a terminal in Unity click on Ubuntu icon in the top left corner.



Click on the Ubuntu Icon in the Upper Left corner



In the search box start typing terminal



In the Search Box Start search for terminal



Once you see the terminal icon you can click on it to launch the application



Once you see the terminal icon you can click on it to launch the application



Terminal window launched



Gnome 3:

To launch a terminal in Gnome 3 slide your mouse to the upper left corner where activities is.



Click on Activities in the upper left corner



Search for terminal


Search For Terminal


Click on the Terminal Application



Finding Your MAC Address


In your terminal window type the following command:

ifconfig -a



Ubuntu - Gnome 2 - ifconfig -a



The -a at the end of the command will show you all connections even if it is down.

Next to each connection you should see your MAC Address. In the image below I underlined the MAC Address as well as a few of the connections.



Mac Address



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How to Install phpMyAdmin on Ubuntu 10.04 LTS Server http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/how-to-install-phpmyadmin-on-ubuntu-10-04-lts-server/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/how-to-install-phpmyadmin-on-ubuntu-10-04-lts-server/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:49:57 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=239 PhpMyAdmin is a web interface to your MySQL databases. It makes managing, creating and configuring your MySQL database a breeze. It is a very common tool and is often installed by default by many web host. In this article we will cover on how to install phpMyAdmin on Ubuntu Server 10.04 (LTS). You will need to already have the LAMP stack installed for these steps to work and have your MySQL root password handy. If you need help on how to install LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, and PHP) please visit the following article:


For security reasons I recommend restricting access to phpmyadmin from a specific internal IP address.

sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin



sudo apt-get install phpmyadmin - Ubuntu







Enter Your password



Enter your password



Select apache by hitting the space bar when apache is highlighted.



Select your webserver - Default Apache



Select Yes to configure phpMyAdmin database.



Select Yes



Enter MySQL password



Enter Your MySQL root  password



Create phpMyAdmin db password or you can leave it blank to have one created for you. I have always created one myself.



Create a password for your MySQL database



If you decided to create a phpMyAdmin database password enter it again.



Confirm the password



We will need to know the IP address of the machine you just installed phpmyadmin on. Once we know this we can access the tools from a web browser on a computer on your network. It is a good idea to set a static IP address on your server so it will not change. If you need some help on how to do this on an Ubuntu server take a look at the following article:


Type the following to find your IP address




ifconfig - used to find the servers IP address



You can see one device has an IP address of We can ignore this address because this is a loopback address. I can see that my IP address for device eth0 is



IP Address for eth0



So now that we know the IP address of the machine with phpmyadmin installed. Let’s navigate to the phpMyAdmin login page.






Enter root for user and your MySQL root user password



User name will be root

Password will be the root password when you installed MySQL.


Landing Page of phpMyAdmin


source: http://mixeduperic.com/ubuntu/how-to-install-phpmyadmin-on-ubuntu-1004-lts-server.html

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How to Choose a Wireless Router http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/how-to-choose-a-wireless-router/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/how-to-choose-a-wireless-router/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:48:47 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=237
  • 1

    Evaluate signal strength. Different wireless routers are rated for different signal strengths. Even for a small apartment, signal strength can be an issue even with the most-up-to-date router. Figure out which one fits your network needs. Signal strength is best evaluated by real-life tests, and not from manufacturer’s published specifications. (see “Tests” below).

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    • Understand obstacles in an interior home environment, as well as the specific distance that the signal will need to go for use in any particular part of the building.
  • 2

    Decide on speed. Make sure the router will support an existing Internet connection (Cable, DSL, etc.)

    • Look at Mbps, or megabits per second. For the latest routers, the theorethical limit is 600 mbps; most up-to-date routers support 300 mbps (802.11N standard). The previous standard (802.11G) is 54 Mbps. Check the manufacturer’s documentation or ask a knowledgeable salesperson about the specifications.
    • 802.11N. Find out whether your client devices all support 802.11N standard. If all of them do, you are safe to choose 802.11N router. If they don’t (and have 802.11G instead), keep in mind that when N device is used at the same time with G device, effective speed is greatly reduced.
    • 2.4 GHz, 5GHz and non/concurrent dual-band:
      • If you need to use G and N devices at the same time, a dual-band router will help to avoid interference: you can connect a G device to 2.4GHz, and an N device to 5 GHz.
      • Remember that the concurrent dual-band router and dual-band client wifi adapter don’t always mean double speed. If your PC has only one Wi-Fi adapter, you can only connect to one band at a time. Even if you have 2 adapters, under Windows it doesn’t give you double speed, only the maximum of either.
      • 5GHz gives weaker signal compared to 2.4GHz, especially at longer distance from router.
  • 3

    Test your choice of equipment. Find a real-life speed throughput and range tests for the models you consider. Specifications give only a theoretical maximum, while tests will show how it will actually perform. Search the following website on Google, smallnetbuilder.com/lanwan/router-charts/view SmallNetBuilder comparison charts and cnet.com.au/internet-networking/modems-routers/reviews.htm CNet.com.au reviews that offer test speed throughput

  • 4

    Choose encryption. Think about the need for encryption. Wireless routers often employ WPA or other kinds of encryption to protect the network from intruders. You may need technical assistance from your router’s manufacturer.

  • 5

    Keep in mind compatibility issues. One of the other essential elements of choosing the best wireless router is to figure out how it will complement existing pieces of hardware in a home network.

    • Look at matching the brand of a wireless router with the brand of existing network cards. For computer workstations or other hardware without built-in network capability, some network cards or cartridges allow the computer to access the wireless network. When the router matches these small adaptors or cards, the LAN connection may have better speed.
    • Think about matching a video game console. For example, the Nintendo Wii is a household hardware element that is often connected to a home wireless network. Although Nintendo does not promote a specific brand of wireless router, understanding compatibility with video game consoles can be another factor in choosing your router and other network equipment (client Wi-Fi adapters; NAS etc).
  • 6

    Evaluate customer support. Buy a wireless router from a company with good customer support. Technical support and assistance may be critical for installing or dealing with the device.

  • 7

    Compare warranties. One strategy for buying the best wireless router is to select one that will be guaranteed to last a certain length of time. Look carefully at warranty provisions and make this part of the pro and con list for specific brands and models.

  • source: http://www.wikihow.com/Choose-a-Wireless-Router


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    Forget GNOME and KDE, Xfce 4.8 Runs Simpler and Faster http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/forget-gnome-and-kde-xfce-4-8-runs-simpler-and-faster/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/forget-gnome-and-kde-xfce-4-8-runs-simpler-and-faster/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:46:31 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=235 A few times each month, I tire of the complexities of GNOME and KDE. Then I turn to a simpler, faster desktop for a couple of days or a week — and that desktop, more often than not, is Xfce. No other desktop I’m aware of balances convenience and speed half so well.

    The only drawback has been that, until this week, the current version of Xfce has been a couple of years old and looking blocky and a little limited in what it can do. Consequently, the release of Xfce 4.8 is both welcome and overdue. The new release gives Xfce a facelift and some new enhancements to general functionality, settings, and — most of all — the panel, while not compromising previous releases’ functionality and lightweight.

    This approach makes 4.8 seem a minor release by GNOME or KDE standards, but I suspect that I’m not the only one who wouldn’t have things any other way. Unlike the other major desktops, Xfce is a niche environment, and its success should be judged by how well it fills that niche — not on how many new features and applications can be crammed into it. It’s an attitude that may be timely, considering some of the changes due to arrive on the Linux desktop during 2011.

    Xfce 4.8 is available as source code from the project, and already starting to become available for major distributions. Packaged versions are available from private repositories for Ubuntu and Fedora, as well as pre-release packages for Debian and its derivative distributions. You may find that some of these packages are incompatible with existing Xfce utilities — for example, as I write, the Ubuntu packages are incompatible with the previous version’s Orage calendar.

    A visual tour and release notes are also available, although the release notes are aimed more at developers than at general users.

    Once the new version is installed, you can select it as your desktop as you log in.

    General Features and Behind the Scenes

    You won’t see much in the way of new applications in the 4.8 release. About the closest you get is the new fuzzy clock for the panel, which indicates the time as “quarter past three,” instead of with the false precision of 3:15:25 insisted on by digital clocks. Otherwise, much of the new Xfce release looks superficially like previous versions with the same features hat are so simple that they appear subtle, such as dragging and dropping open windows in the virtual workshop indicator on the panel.

    You will find some changes. For instance, the progress dialogs for moving or copying files now show the progress for individual files, rather than the overall progress of the entire process. Similarly, you can now drag and drop from application launchers from the panel, menu, or file manager to add them to the desktop — a simple step that Xfce has needed for several releases. Both these enhancements are small in themselves, but well in keeping with Xfce’s ongoing efforts to avoid unnecessary complexity.

    The same is true of the new eject button in the file manager beside removable devices. In earlier releases, you could remove a device via the context menu, but 4.8 eliminates the extra click. And if you add a shortcut to a directory in a panel, then clicking on its icon automatically shows sub-directories.


    The Xfce 4.8 desktop


    Yet another change is the reorganization of the Setting Manager. Unlike in KDE, Xfce’s setting window includes all the customization options in one place, including those for the calendar, panel, and file manager, so that you don’t have to search the desktop clicking one item after the next searching for options. For the first time, as well, configuration dialogs for printing and sound are included as well.

    These are the sorts of finishing details that quickly add up — and all too often are delayed in other desktops in favor of developing new features.

    Still, on the whole, most of the biggest changes are behind the scenes. If you are a non-English speaker, you may notice substantial updates to translations in almost all aspects of the desktop from libraries to applications — not just in western European languages like French and German, but also Romanian, Greek, Hungarian, and Arabic.

    robably the greatest general change in the new version is the move away fromThunar-VFS for the viewing of remote files on the desktop to the use of GNOME-VFS.

    Although I couldn’t find an explanation of this change, the most likely reason is to make better use of the Xfce project’s limited number of developers by not allotting resources to a feature that is already well-developed elsewhere. At any rate, anyone who uses technologies such as FTP, Windows Shares, WebDav and SSH servers should benefit directly from the change, even though they may be unaware of the change.

    The Panel Facelift

    At a time when GNOME and Ubuntu’s Unity desktop are simplifying the panel, Xfce is keeping its standard panel and rewriting it. The result is still recognizable as the quirky feature of early releases, requiring you to select Move from a context menu before repositioning a launcher or plug in, but is otherwise more flexible.

    For one thing the 4.8 panel has more customization options than its predecessor. While in the previous release, you could adjust a panel by size, position, and width and set it to autohide to give you more screen space, in the new release, the panel can also be locked and given a background consisting of a color or an image. You can also adjust a panel’s size by either pixels or percentage of the total screen in 4.8.

    In addition, the 4.8 panel introduces the concept of what might be called item spacing. That is, instead of being automatically added to the panel, as in old releases, an icon or plug-in must either be added to an existing space, or else a new space must be created for it.

    This arrangement seems needlessly fussy at first, but it helps you to organize the panel more to your liking, and reduces the conflict between panel width and the number of items on the panel.

    Moreover, each launcher space can become a sub-menu or drawer of its own, with its own items. These sub-menus are a practical alternative to too many icons on the desktop, or to the various efforts to eliminate the space occupied by the classical or accordion-type main menu when it is open. Either way, the sub-menus help to keep Xfce simple in its layout.


    Xfce’s 4.8 panel


    Back to the Basics with a Timely Release

    Xfce 4.8 tweaks the desktop here and there, but mainly it should please existing users by being an updated version of what they already have.

    However, the new release is also a timely one. For one thing, as the market for netbook and tablet computers continues to grow, Xfce’s design philosophy may be exactly what users need.

    Just as importantly, the second quarter of 2011 should see the release not only of Ubuntu’s Unity desktop but also the release of GNOME 3.0. Both push the graphics capacity of free video drivers to the limit, and — despite Unity’s simplistic appearance — neither is particularly fast or response if the pre-releases are any indication.

    Moreover, while both Unity and GNOME 3.0 have their supporters, both also have large bodies of detractors (or, at least, very vocal ones). In both cases, the complaint is the same: the new desktops are being developed without paying much attention to what users want. For this reason, the releases of GNOME 3.0 and Unity seem likely to be accompanied by a number of dissatisfied users.

    If that happens, Xfce might easily see a sudden increase in interest. Unlike GNOME 3.0 or Unity, Xfce does not try to change how users interact with the desktop. Instead, it focuses on the basics, providing a basic desktop and focusing on speed and efficiency.

    Faced with a choice of two new desktop concepts, some users may turn to KDE. But others just might consider Xfce — and, if they do, then the 4.8 release will be ready to give them a clear alternative.

    source: http://www.datamation.com/open-source/Forget-GNOME-and-KDE-Xfce-48-Runs-Simpler-and-Faster-3921221-2.htm



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    Can Linux Open-Xchange Replace Microsoft Exchange? http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/can-linux-open-xchange-replace-microsoft-exchange/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/can-linux-open-xchange-replace-microsoft-exchange/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:44:59 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=233 Whether you’re replacing Microsoft Exchange or just looking for a competent groupware suite, Open-Xchange is one of the leading contenders for Linux. How does it rate? Very well, with a few caveats.

    This month I’ll be looking at the administration side of Open-Xchange. Next month I’ll report in on the actual end user experience and whether Open-Xchange is worth deploying.

    So what is Open-Xchange? Basically it’s a collaboration platform that can replace Microsoft Exchange, or simply serve as a groupware offering for small or large organizations. It can support integration with Microsoft Active Directory, if you need that, or provide LDAP services. It has all the groupware features you’d expect for a modern workplace — email/Webmail, calendaring, task management, contact management, document storage, and so on. OX has connectors or (prepare for a truly bad pun) “OXtenders” for synchronizing with Outlook, Mac OS X, and mobile devices.

    Got all that? Now we need to select a version of Open-Xchange to deploy.

    The Many Moods of Open-Xchange

    Like many open source based solutions, Open-Xchange has several versions. You have the option of a hosted version through one of Open-Xchange’s resellers, the Server Edition, Appliance, or the Community Edition. Confused? It’s not really that bad:

    The hosted edition is offered through providers like 1&1. They do the setup, you pay per month or per user. Or if you’re a hosting provider, you might offer this yourself. That’s way beyond the scope of what I’m looking at, though.

    The Server and Appliance editions are for companies that want to host their own supported versions of Open-Xchange. If you want to install Open-Xchange on a server running other services or have support contracts with Red Hat or Novell, then you’d go with the Server edition. In other words, you’re going to install the packages yourself. The Appliance version is for installation on a bare server or delivered as a VMware image that you can slap in and boot up.

    Finally, there’s the Community Edition. This is unsupported and as you might expect, is going to take a bit more elbow grease to install and configure. It is, however, free. This can be somewhat challenging to locate on the Open-Xchange site, at least if you’re coming through the front page. To put it mildly, the site needs help. Let me take that back — the site needs an intervention, not just help. Finding anything, like a simple and straightforward explanation of what Open-Xchange is, can be difficult. Finding thedownloads for the open source editions can be incredibly difficult.

    But they can be found. To get a feel for Open-Xchange, I’ve looked at the Appliance version and Community Edition.

    As you can see from the installation guide, installation and basic configuration of the Community Edition is going to take a while. I’d budget at least a half a day to get Open-Xchange installed and ready to handle users. Really, I’d budget a full day because you’re also going to want to read through the docs and if anything is missed give it another go.

    The Appliance edition is much simpler. You can get it installed and ready to configure for users in an hour or so. Figure in a bit more time for plowing through the documentation.

    Speaking of the documentation, it’s a case of good news and bad news.

    Speaking of the documentation, it’s a case of good news and bad news. Things are spread out quite a bit on the “OXpedia” and the documentation is fairly complete. It does, however, require some sifting and patience in actually findingwhat you may need. Also, I’ve spotted quite a few instances in screenshots where either the actual OX interface hasn’t been fully translated to English or they simply used the German language screenshots.

    The Appliance Edition is based on Debian, and uses what may be the least attractive installer I’ve ever seen. It does the job, and it’s not very complicated — it just looks like it.

    From the experience I’ve had so far with OX administration, I’d give it a B, maybe a B-. It could be far easier to administer for a small business, but I suspect that much of the company’s focus is on their hosting provider business. I’d recommend strongly considering a hosted version of Open-Xchange if you have a smallish organization with limited tech support resources. If you have more time than money, though, the Server and Community Editions are there.

    Until Next Month

    I happen to be in the “more time than money,” group. Ultimately, I’ve decided to go with the Community Edition for the next few weeks and test it out. I’ve got installation and some basic configuration tackled, but the real question is what it’s going to be like as an end user.

    My first impressions of Open-Xchange — it has a lot of promise for end users, but it could be far easier to set up. It’s open source, but Open-Xchange doesn’t go to great lengths to build community around its open source offerings and Community Edition. That’s disappointing, but they are there for the organizations and projects that might like to use the Community Edition in lieu of support.

    That’s our first look at Open-Xchange. Next month, I’ll report back and give an overview of using Open-Xchange and recommendations. Should you be considering Open-Xchange for your organization? I’ll let you know in February.


    source: http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/reviews/7275/2

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    6 Open Source Ways to Improve Your Desktop http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/6-open-source-ways-to-improve-your-desktop/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/6-open-source-ways-to-improve-your-desktop/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:41:53 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=230 The open source world has a feast of high-quality and useful applications for all platforms and all tasks. Cynthia Harvey collects 53 for your deployment and migration consideration.

    With so many new devices — with so many new interfaces — coming out all the time, is your desktop starting to seem a little, well…boring? Are you frustrated by how slow and buggy Windows is? Are you tired of winter weather and wish that something � anything � would change?

    If so, this list is for you.

    We’ve collected 53 different open source projects that can make your desktop environment faster, prettier, easier to use or just a little different. They run the gamut from small utilities that do just one thing to open source operating systems that can replace Windows. We’ve included a number of tools for Linux users that can help you customize your desktop to meet your unique needs and tastes.

    Have an open source suggestions? As always, if you’d like to suggest additional apps for an upcoming list, feel free to add them in the comments section below.

    Application Launchers

    1. KysrunReplaces other methods of launching Linux apps Much like Launchy (below), Kysrun starts your applications or opens bookmarks or documents with a couple of keystrokes. It also starts searches on Google, Wikipedia or IMDB and solves math problems. Operating System: Linux

    2. Launchy Replaces the Windows start menu and other methods of launching apps

    If you hate to use the mouse, Launchy is for you. It lets you open applications, documents, folders, bookmarks and more with just a few keystrokes. Operating System: Windows, Linux, OS X

    Desktop Search

    3. Beagle Replaces the find command

    If you don’t know the name of the file you’re looking for, Beagle can help you find it. It indexes and searches the text of your documents, emails, web history, IM/IRC conversations, contacts, calendar, and other files to find the keywords you’re looking for. Operating System: Linux

    4. DocFetcher Replaces the find command, Windows Search
    Instead of wasting time searching every file on your system, DocFetcher searches only your documents for the keywords you enter. It supports plain text, html, Microsoft Office, OpenOffice.org, AbiWord, pdf and several other types of files. Operating System: Windows, Linux

    5. Pinot Replaces the find command
    Pinot combines both desktop search and Web search into a single app. It also allows advanced queries (probabilistic search, boolean filters, wildcards, date ranges, time and size) and supports Chinese, Japanese and Korean text searches. Operating System: Linux

    6. Recoll Replaces the find command
    Recoll can search the text of most document types, including e-mails, attachments and compressed files. It supports a variety of query types, and it provides a preview of searched documents. Operating System: Linux

    source: http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/reviews/7297/1


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    6 Linux Groupware Servers http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/6-linux-groupware-servers/ http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/2012/11/02/6-linux-groupware-servers/#comments Fri, 02 Nov 2012 22:38:20 +0000 30310012 http://blog.politekniktelkom.ac.id/30310012/?p=227 The Linux/FOSS world offers a wealth of excellent Linux-based groupware server choices, suitable for small shops to giant enterprises. Eric Geier rounds up six to get you started.

    Groupware solutions can help your organization better collaborate and manage work life. They can give users email access and help them better manage and share their contacts, calendars, to-do lists, appointments, and other information. Access is typically provided via a web interface and clients on computers and mobile devices. In this roundup, we’ll� discover Linux-based servers that can be an open source and economic alternative to big-name servers like Microsoft Exchange and IBM Lotus Notes.


    SOGo supports the basic groupware functions: task management, calendars, address books and emails. The server and all related components are released under the GNU GPL/LGPL v2 license. That means even the connectors for Outlook and Thunderbird are available for free, unlike most other groupware solutions. Mobile phones and devices are also well supported, either natively or via a free SOGo connector.

    You can quickly setup a test server with their downloadable virtual appliances. Binary packages are available for several Linux distributions. You’ll also find SOGo is well supported. They offer installation and configuration guides for the server and clients, a FAQ, and active mailing list.


    Citadel provides users with the usual groupware features. Additionally, it gives you bulletin boards, mailing lists, instant messaging, and a wiki. The project is licensed under the GNU General Public License (GPL3) and seems to be well maintained and updated regularly. Users can access the services with the web-based interface (named WebCit) or via supported clients, such as KOrganizer, Evolution, Outlook, and Mozilla Thunderbird and Sunbird.

    Citadel boasts that they offer a turnkey solution that installs quickly and easily. It can be installed with their Easy Install solution, available as a Debian or Ubuntu package, or downloaded as a VMware appliance. They also offer great support via a forum, FAQ, administrator manual, and other documentation.


    Open-Xchange, started back in 2000, offers a Community Edition, which is the same as the premium editions but doesn’t come with official support. Plus the OXtender for Outlook and Mac OS X can only be purchased in combination with a maintenance contract. However, users can still receive access via the web or on mobile phones with encrypted push and sync support. Along with the basic groupware features, Open-Xchange offers document management and sharing, and social networking functionality.

    The Open-Xchange backend is released under the GNU General Public License (GPL2), while the frontend is released under the Creative Commons Share Alike, Non Commercial, Attribution license.

    Open-Xchange provides installation instructions for several Linux distributions, an administration manual, and user manual. Even more documentation is available for customization, programming, and other advanced tasks. For troubleshooting, they also have a forum, knowledge-base, and FAQ.

    source: http://www.linuxplanet.com/linuxplanet/reviews/7289/1


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